• If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Work with all your cloud files (Drive, Dropbox, and Slack and Gmail attachments) and documents (Google Docs, Sheets, and Notion) in one place. Try Dokkio (from the makers of PBworks) for free. Now available on the web, Mac, Windows, and as a Chrome extension!



Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years ago


Waste Treatment:

Typical Septic Systems





Primary treatment



Influx (influent) and removal of large objects



Sand and grit removal



Primary sedimentation tank at a rural treatment plant
Primary sedimentation tank at a rural treatment plant




Secondary treatment i



Fluidized bed reactors



Filter beds (oxidising beds)

Trickling filter bed using plastic media
Trickling filter bed using plastic media



Biological aerated filters


Secondary Sedimentation tank at a rural treatment plant
Secondary Sedimentation tank at a rural treatment plant




Living Machines:


Originally invented by John Todd, Living Machines are used at a variety of scales from municipal wastewater treatment to back yard greywater recycling

Here is a link to Todd's site with a bunch of case studies

Really, they are just made of buckets, bits of pipe and a few pumps (oh, and  the plants and frogs and things)


Backyard Living Machine


  An example diagram from one manufacturer: Worrell Water Technologies





Some Examples of Use at a municipal scale:

Outdoor tanks:



Indoor Tanks:



 Or no tanks: use as a constructed wetland









(Membrane biological reactors)

Biogas can be made from all kinds of stuff: animal manure, human excrement, nitrogen-rich compost: anything that bacteria likes.

Biogas has all kinds of uses

Uses for biogas include:

cooking (see below)

running machinery


generating electricity




The following pictures are from a grassroots website explaining how to make fuel from raw sewage.


Download Powerpoint Presentation

Here are all the materials you need: (Mainly, just a huge polyethylene bag)



 The digester installed at a small farm in Vietnam


Sewage is added to the digester 


these guys have their outhouse connected directly


a diagram of the digester

 The final product: cooking gas









Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.